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Environmental Literature
   
 
 
 
 
9.1   Energy cannot be created or destroyed; however, energy can be converted from one form to another.
 
9.2   Electrical force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects.
 
9.3   Various sources of energy are used by humans and have advantages and disadvantages
 
9.4   Atoms react with one another to form new molecules. 
 
9.5   Due to its unique chemical structure, carbon forms many organic and inorganic compounds.
 
9.6   Chemical technologies present risks and benefits to the health and well-being of humans,  plants and animals.
 
9.7   Elements on Earth move among reservoirs in the solid earth, oceans, atmosphere and organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles.
 
9.8   The use of resources by human populations may affect the quality of the environment. 
 
9.9   Some materials can be recycled, but others accumulate in the environment and may affect the balance of the Earth systems. 
 

Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
9.1
Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?
 
  
  • Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation, is captured by materials and photosynthetic processes, and eventually is transformed into heat.
  • Describe the effects of adding energy to matter in terms of the motion of atoms and molecules, and the resulting phase changes.
  • Explain how energy is transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.
  • Describe energy transformations among heat, light, electricity and motion.

Lessons addressing 9.1
 
Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
 
9.2
Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?
  • Moving electrical charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets can produce electrical force.
  • Electrical current can be transformed into light through the excitation of electrons.
  • Explain the relationship among voltage, current and resistance in a simple series circuit.
  • Explain how electricity is used to produce heat and light in incandescent bulbs and heating elements.
  • Describe the relationship between current and magnetism.

Lessons addressing 9.2

 
Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?
  • During the burning of fossil fuels, stored chemical energy is converted to electrical energy through heat transfer processes.
  • In nuclear fission, matter is transformed directly into energy in a process that is several million times as energetic as chemical burning.
  • Alternative energy sources are being explored and used to address the disadvantages of using fossil and nuclear fuels.
  • Explain how heat is used to generate electricity.
  • Describe the availability, current uses and environmental issues related to the use of fossil and nuclear fuels to produce electricity.
  • Describe the availability, current uses and environmental issues related to the use of hydrogen fuel cells, wind and solar energy to produce electricity.
 
Lessons addressing 9.3
Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
9.4

Properties of Matter – How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?

  • Atoms have a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
  • The configuration of atoms and molecules determines the properties of the materials.
  • Describe the general structure of the atom, and explain how the properties of the first 20 elements in the Periodic Table are related to their atomic structures.
  • Describe how atoms combine to form new substances by transferring electrons (ionic bonding) or sharing electrons (covalent bonding).
  • Explain the chemical composition of acids and bases, and explain the change of pH in neutralization reactions.
Lessons addressing 9.4

Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
9.5
Properties of Matter – How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?
  • Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains, rings and branching networks to form a variety of structures, including fossil fuels, synthetic polymers and the large molecules of life.
  • Explain how the structure of the carbon atom affects the type of bonds it forms in organic and inorganic molecules.
  • Describe combustion reactions of hydrocarbons and their resulting by-products.
  • Explain the general formation and structure of carbon-based polymers, including synthetic polymers, such as polyethylene, and biopolymers, such as carbohydrate.

Lessons addressing 9.5

Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
9.6
Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?
  • Materials produced from the cracking of petroleum are the starting points for the production of many synthetic compounds.
  • The products of chemical technologies include synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, plastics and fuels.
  • Explain how simple chemical monomers can be combined to create linear, branched and/or cross-linked polymers.
  • Explain how the chemical structure of polymers affects their physical properties.
  • Explain the short- and long-term impacts of landfills and incineration of waste materials on the quality of the environment.

Lessons addressing 9.6

Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
9.7
The Changing Earth – How do materials cycle through the Earth's systems?
  • Elements on Earth exist in essentially fixed amounts and are located in various chemical reservoirs.
  • The cyclical movement of matter between reservoirs is driven by the Earth's internal and external sources of energy.
  • Explain how chemical and physical processes cause carbon to cycle through the major earth reservoirs.
  • Explain how solar energy causes water to cycle through the major earth reservoirs.
  • Explain how internal energy of the Earth causes matter to cycle through the magma and the solid earth.

Lessons addressing 9.7

Connecticut Content Standard

Expected Performances
9.8

Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?

  • Emission of combustion by-products, such as SO2, CO2 and NOx by industries and vehicles is a major source of air pollution.
  • Accumulation of metal and non-metal ions used to increase agricultural productivity is a major source of water pollution.
  • Explain how the release of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere can form acid rain, and how acid rain affects water sources, organisms and human-made structures.
  • Explain how the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere increases Earth's “greenhouse” effect and may cause climate changes.
  • Explain how the accumulation of mercury, phosphates and nitrates affects the quality of water and the organisms that live in rivers, lakes and oceans.

 Lessons addressing 9.8
Connecticut Content Standard
Expected Performances
9.9
Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?
  • New technologies and changes in lifestyle can have positive and/or negative effects on the environment.
  • Explain how land development, transportation options and consumption of resources may affect the environment.
  • Describe human efforts to reduce the consumption of raw materials and improve air and water quality.
 
Lessons addressing 9.9